Unfortunately, however, Maté is fundamentally proposing a reductionist vision of addiction, where abuse history and posited biochemical changes are now the essential causes of people's self-destructive action. It is not enough to say that this model is highly conjectural. It also isn't true, that is, it makes little sense of the data. Vincent Felitti conducted a huge epidemiological study on early childhood experiences. He found that only a tiny group (3.5 percent) of people with four or more adverse childhood experiences became involved in injection drug use. So Maté's model is highly undiscriminating. The percentage of addicts increases somewhat with the number of adverse experiences. Even so, this relatively minor elevation in no way presupposes the damage is caused biochemically, rather than simply by detrimental psychological consequences and deeply dysfunctional homes and environments.
One counterargument in favor of Maté's position might be that injection drug use is low among this population because so few people who have experienced abuse are exposed to injectable drugs. But this argument does not hold either. Felitti has included alcohol in his research. And, with drinking, the rates of dependence follow the same trajectory depending on the number of adverse childhood experiences but are still not much higher for abuse victims, 16 percent.
In fact, at the deepest level, Maté's views limit our approaches to, our understanding of, and even our respect for people living with addiction. Rather than expand our understanding of addiction, his views harm our ability to respond to it. For one thing, focusing solely on one risk factor and one very questionable source of addiction has led Maté to posit a potential cure for addiction, Ayahuasca, a brew made from South-American spirit-vine that is claimed to open the human consciousness for a higher degree of introspection. In fact, Maté's reliance on this treatment further confuses levels of analysis. Does introspection really remedy the absence of neuro-receptors in some straightforward manner?
In this context, that harm reductionists embrace Maté is extremely troubling. For, contrary to popular beliefs in these circles, Maté is actually diverting the addiction field from a more comprehensive and practicable view of addiction. Maté's embrace of Ayahuasca does not support the broad harm reduction goals of expanding the resources available to people with addictions like those in Vancouver, of developing their skills for functioning in their worlds, and of holding up the hope that they can improve their lives. Instead, this approach is reductive, monosyllabic, and really no different than the disease camp's fool's gold quest for an addiction vaccine in the forlorn hope that we can remedy addiction without improving human lives.
Reply from Reddit Reader: Thank you for your answer. I am very fond of your writing and Dr. Mate's, and I can see your point very clearly about childhood trauma being the new disease theory. It shifts somewhat from "disease" to "disability", which is, in my opinion, wonderful for erasing stigma, but not very empowering for the addicted person. I appreciate your response. I have been very curious about this. Thank you, again, Dr. Peele.
Australian singer Sia does a Starbucks with her new album some people have REAL problems. Most of the tracks are unobstrusive, which is a polite way of saying quite boring, with just a few songs with just enough gusto to keep you from nodding off. This is an album that should have been cut down to seize and released as an EP. The Kinks cover is nice, though.
Hi dear travellors, my name is Jeanny, I am Dutch and I run a small B&B near Valencia. I live in the countryside amongst the orangegroves with my 4 dogs.On my plot I rent out 2 holidayhomes for guests who like to be in nature. The garden/plot is big with a lot of different trees, plants and flowers. You can find me working in the garden or maintaining the houses. As the work gets hard for me on my own, I would love some help. In return, you can really enjoy here Spanish life with nice villages in the neighbourhood and the beautifull city of Valencia and her white sandbeaches only 25 min away.
Abstract: Featured ApplicationThe paper analyzes the usage and mechanisms of feature selection methods that are based on swarm intelligence in different application areas. AbstractThe increasingly rapid creation, sharing and exchange of information nowadays put researchers and data scientists ahead of a challenging task of data analysis and extracting relevant information out of data. To be able to learn from data, the dimensionality of the data should be reduced first. Feature selection (FS) can help to reduce the amount of data, but it is a very complex and computationally demanding task, especially in the case of high-dimensional datasets. Swarm intelligence (SI) has been proved as a technique which can solve NP-hard (Non-deterministic Polynomial time) computational problems. It is gaining popularity in solving different optimization problems and has been used successfully for FS in some applications. With the lack of comprehensive surveys in this field, it was our objective to fill the gap in coverage of SI algorithms for FS. We performed a comprehensive literature review of SI algorithms and provide a detailed overview of 64 different SI algorithms for FS, organized into eight major taxonomic categories. We propose a unified SI framework and use it to explain different approaches to FS. Different methods, techniques, and their settings are explained, which have been used for various FS aspects. The datasets used most frequently for the evaluation of SI algorithms for FS are presented, as well as the most common application areas. The guidelines on how to develop SI approaches for FS are provided to support researchers and analysts in their data mining tasks and endeavors while existing issues and open questions are being discussed. In this manner, using the proposed framework and the provided explanations, one should be able to design an SI approach to be used for a specific FS problem.Keywords: swarm intelligence; feature selection; swarm intelligence framework; machine learning; computational intelligence; survey
Higher-level systematics in amphibians is relatively stable. However, recent phylogenetic studies of African torrent-frogs have uncovered high divergence in these phenotypically and ecologically similar frogs, in particular between West African torrent-frogs versus Central (Petropedetes) and East African (Arthroleptides and Ericabatrachus) lineages. Because of the considerable molecular divergence, and external morphology of the single West African torrent-frog species a new genus was erected (Odontobatrachus). In this study we aim to clarify the systematic position of West African torrent-frogs (Odontobatrachus). We determine the relationships of torrent-frogs using a multi-locus, nuclear and mitochondrial, dataset and include genera of all African and Asian ranoid families. Using micro-tomographic scanning we examine osteology and external morphological features of West African torrent-frogs to compare them with other ranoids.
West African torrent-frogs have been recently recognized as a distinct genus . This study demonstrates the distinctiveness of this lineage among all currently known families in the Ranoidea clade. Preliminary dating points to an origin of the lineage in the Cretaceous, a period of high diversification of family lineages in Ranoidea . Molecular results distinguish the lineage comprising West African torrent-frogs from all known Ranoidea families. A comparison of osteological characters of this lineage with torrent-frogs from Central and East Africa, family Petropedetidae, further supports its distinctiveness. Consequently, a new family, Odontobatrachidae fam. nov., is described for West African torrent-frogs. The genus Odontobatrachus is monotypic but undescribed species have been identified and their description is pending . Present findings of an endemic frog family in West Africa reflect the importance of this biodiversity hotspot, as South Africa is the only other African region with an endemic anuran family.
In contrast, researchers in another 2005 study found that people with MC1R mutations have a higherpain sensitivity. But this experiment used thermal pain (heat and cold) instead of electrical currents.
The series is a drama based on real scandals in Muay Thai, and those stories are woven into the storyline, along with commentary from real people who were involved. This includes referees, promoters, gamblers, fighters and ring doctors. In that sense, parts are filmed in the style of a docuseries.
During his time in the industry, Dr. Sudhichai has learned to spot the signs that something is amiss during a fight. These signs usually become apparent before the match, but not necessarily in the ring, he says. The most common is frequent urination, which causes dehydration and loss of strength. The aim is to give the fighter just enough of a dosage to affect their performance, but not enough to stop them from fighting. In many cases, fighters have passed out after coming out of the ring.
This cruel practice, which can be fatal, is undoubtedly caused by gambling. While it can come down to pure greed, those who are in debt or under pressure can be forced to play dirty. In some cases, even child fighters have been targeted.
Security breaches can disrupt work schedules and have a significant impact on the bottom line. Companies rely on the CSO to stay ahead of security issues, solve problems and ensure the organization runs smoothly.
The toric IOL may rotate off-axis. There will be some partial effect if it rotates off-axis. For example, the correction effect of the AcrySof toric is reduced by 10% for every 3o rotation off-axis. For the lens to lose its full effect, it would have to be off-axis by 30o. Prevention of IOL rotation includes complete removal of OVDs, especially posterior to the IOL. 2b1af7f3a8