Ieee 6 Bus System Data Pdf 95
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address. (1) A number, character, or group of characters which identifies a given device or a storage location which may contain a piece of data or a program step. (2) To refer to a device or storage location by an identifying number, character, or group of characters.
American National Standards Institute. 11 West 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036. An organization that coordinates the development of U.S. voluntary national standards for nearly all industries. It is the U.S. member body to ISO and IEC. Information technology standards pertain to programming languages, electronic data interchange, telecommunications and physical properties of diskettes, cartridges and magnetic tapes.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A seven bit code adopted as a standard to represent specific data characters in computer systems, and to facilitate interchange of data between various machines and systems. Provides 128 possible characters, the first 32 of which are used for printing and transmission control. Since common storage is an 8-bit byte [256 possible characters] and ASCII uses only 128, the extra bit is used to hold a parity bit or create special symbols. See: extended ASCII.
analog. Pertaining to data [signals] in the form of continuously variable [wave form] physical quantities; e.g., pressure, resistance, rotation, temperature, voltage. Contrast with digital.
array. (IEEE) An n-dimensional ordered set of data items identified by a single name and one or more indices, so that each element of the set is individually addressable; e.g., a matrix, table, or vector.
asynchronous transmission. A timing independent method of electrical transfer of data in which the sending and receiving units are synchronized on each character, or small block of characters, usually by the use of start and stop signals. Contrast with synchronous transmission.
audit. (1) (IEEE) An independent examination of a work product or set of work products to assess compliance with specifications, standards, contractual agreements, or other criteria. See: functional configuration audit, physical configuration audit. (2) (ANSI) To conduct an independent review and examination of system records and activities in order to test the adequacy and effectiveness of data security and data integrity procedures, to ensure compliance with established policy and operational procedures, and to recommend any necessary changes. See: computer system audit, software audit.
bit. A contraction of the term binary digit. The bit is the basic unit of digital data. It may be in one of two states, logic 1 or logic 0. It may be thought of as a switch which is either on or off. Bits are usually combined into computer words of various sizes, such as the byte.
bomb. A trojan horse which attacks a computer system upon the occurrence of a specific logical event [logic bomb], the occurrence of a specific time-related logical event [time bomb], or is hidden in electronic mail or data and is triggered when read in a certain way [letter bomb]. See: trojan horse, virus, worm.
boundary value. (1) (IEEE) A data value that corresponds to a minimum or maximum input, internal, or output value specified for a system or component. (2) A value which lies at, or just inside or just outside a specified range of valid input and output values.
boundary value analysis. (NBS) A selection technique in which test data are chosen to lie along "boundaries" of the input domain [or output range] classes, data structures, procedure parameters, etc. Choices often include maximum, minimum, and trivial values or parameters. This technique is often called stress testing. See: testing, boundary value.
bubble chart. (IEEE) A data flow, data structure, or other diagram in which entities are depicted with circles [bubbles] and relationships are represented by links drawn between the circles. See: block diagram, box diagram, flowchart, graph, input-process-output chart, structure chart.
buffer. A device or storage area [memory] used to store data temporarily to compensate for differences in rates of data flow, time of occurrence of events, or amounts of data that can be handled by the devices or processes involved in the transfer or use of the data.
bus. A common pathway along which data and control signals travel between different hardware devices within a computer system. (A) When bus architecture is used in a computer, the CPU, memory and peripheral equipment are interconnected through the bus. The bus is often divided into two channels, a control channel to select where data is located [address bus], and the other to transfer the data [data bus or I/O bus]. Common buses are: ISA [Industry Standard Architecture] the original IBM PC 16 bit AT bus; EISA [Extended Industry Standard Architecture] the IBM PC 32 bit XT bus [which provides for bus mastering]; MCA [MicroChannel Architecture] an IBM 32 bit bus; Multibus I & II [advanced, 16 & 32 bit respectively, bus architecture by Intel used in industrial, military and aerospace applications]; NuBus, a 32 bit bus architecture originally developed at MIT [A version is used in the Apple Macintosh computer]; STD bus, a bus architecture used in medical and industrial equipment due to its small size and rugged design [Originally 8 bits, with extensions to 16 and 32 bits]; TURBO Channel, a DEC 32 bit data bus with peak transfer rates of 100 MB/second; VMEbus [Versa Module Eurocard Bus], a 32 bit bus from Motorola, et.al., used in industrial, commercial and military applications worldwide [VME64 is an expanded version that provides 64 bit data transfer and addressing]. (B) When bus architecture is used in a network, all terminals and computers are connected to a common channel that is made of twisted wire pairs, coaxial cable, or optical fibers. Ethernet is a common LAN architecture using a bus topology.
call graph. (IEEE) A diagram that identifies the modules in a system or computer program and shows which modules call one another. Note: The result is not necessarily the same as that shown in a structure chart. Syn: call tree, tier chart. Contrast with structure chart. See: control flow diagram, data flow diagram, data structure diagram, state diagram.
cause effect graphing. (1) (NBS) Test data selection technique. The input and output domains are partitioned into classes and analysis is performed to determine which input classes cause which effect. A minimal set of inputs is chosen which will cover the entire effect set. (2) (Myers) A systematic method of generating test cases representing combinations of conditions. See: testing, functional.
central processing unit. The unit of a computer that includes the circuits controlling the interpretation of program instructions and their execution. The CPU controls the entire computer. It receives and sends data through input-output channels, retrieves data and programs from memory, and conducts mathematical and logical functions of a program.
change control. The processes, authorities for, and procedures to be used for all changes that are made to the computerized system and/or the system's data. Change control is a vital subset of the Quality Assurance [QA] program within an establishment and should be clearly described in the establishment's SOPs. See: configuration control.
check summation. A technique for error detection to ensure that data or program files have been accurately copied or transferred. Basically, a redundant check in which groups of digits; e.g., a file, are summed, usually without regard to overflow, and that sum checked against a previously computed sum to verify operation accuracy. Contrast with cyclic redundancy check [CRC], parity check. See: checksum.
client-server. A term used in a broad sense to describe the relationship between the receiver and the provider of a service. In the world of microcomputers, the term client-server describes a networked system where front-end applications, as the client, make service requests upon another networked system. Client-server relationships are defined primarily by software. In a local area network [LAN], the workstation is the client and the file server is the server. However, client-server systems are inherently more complex than file server systems. Two disparate programs must work in tandem, and there are many more decisions to make about separating data and processing between the client workstations and the database server. The database server encapsulates database files and indexes, restricts access, enforces security, and provides applications with a consistent interface to data via a data dictionary.
coding. (IEEE) (1) In software engineering, the process of expressing a computer program in a programming language. (2) The transforming of logic and data from design specifications (design descriptions) into a programming language. See: implementation.
comment. (1) (ISO) In programming languages, a language construct that allows [explanatory] text to be inserted into a program and that does not have any effect on the execution of the program. (2) (IEEE) Information embedded within a computer program, job control statements, or a set of data, that provides clarification to human readers but does not affect machine interpretation.
compact disc - read only memory. A compact disk used for the permanent storage of text, graphic or sound information. Digital data is represented very compactly by tiny holes that can be read by lasers attached to high resolution sensors. Capable of storing up to 680 MB of data, equivalent to 250,000 pages of text, or 20,000 medium resolution images. This storage media is often used for archival purposes. Syn: optical disk, write-once read-many times disk. 2b1af7f3a8