The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) offers guidance to authors in its publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (ICMJE Recommendations), which was formerly the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. The recommended style for references is based on the National Information Standards Organization NISO Z39.29-2005 (R2010) Bibliographic References as adapted by the National Library of Medicine for its databases. Details, including fuller citations and explanations, are in Citing Medicine. (Note Appendix F which covers how citations in MEDLINE/PubMed differ from the advice in Citing Medicine.) For datasets (Item 43 below) and software on the Internet (Item 44 below), simplified formats are also shown.
A full citation for software on the Internet can follow the general guidelines in Item #43 for datasets or in Citing Medicine, Chapter 24 for databases and retrieval systems. Software in other media such as CD-ROM is detailed in Citing Medicine, Chapter 21.
Golda TG, Hough PD, Gay G. APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search). Version 5.0.1 [software]. Sandia National Laboratories. 2007 Feb 16 [cited 2016 Apr 4; downloaded 2010 Jan 5]. Available from:
The MERSCOPE Platform is an end-to-end solution and includes the custom targeted gene panel built using an interactive platform, reagents and consumables for sample preparation and the imaging run, the MERSCOPE instrument itself, an analysis computer, and the visualization and analysis software.
Vizgen has developed a custom Gene Panel Design software application for building the panels. The intuitive MERSCOPE gene panel design software enables automatic and immediate feedback to the end user about the suitability of the genes selected for a MERFISH measurement.
The sample preparation workflow for MERSCOPE is similar to the sample preparation workflow for standard tissue pathology procedures. To prepare a sample with the MERSCOPE workflow the sample is sliced, loaded onto a MERSCOPE slide, stained with the custom gene panel, embedded into a polyacrylamide to digest away the proteins to reduce the auto fluorescent background, and finally the sample is imaged.
Machine casings or panels can be a source of noise when sufficient vibratory energy is transferred into the metal structure and the panel is an efficient radiator of sound. Typically, machine casings or large metal surface areas have the potential to radiate sound when at least one dimension of the panel is longer than one-quarter of the sound's wavelength. Conducting a thorough noise-control survey will help identify the source of vibration and the existence of any surface-radiated sound. When a machine casing or panel is a primary noise source, the most effective modification is to reduce its radiation efficiency. The following noise-control measures should be considered:
Just because a surface area vibrates, it is not correct to assume it is radiating significant noise. In fact, probably less than 5% of all vibrating panels produce sufficient airborne noise to be of concern in an occupational setting. However, vibration damping materials can be an effective retrofit for controlling resonant tones radiated by vibrating metal panels or surface areas. In addition, this application can minimize the transfer of high-frequency sound energy through a panel. The two basic damping applications are free-layer and constrained-layer damping. Free-layer damping, also known as extensional damping, consists of attaching an energy-dissipating material on one or both sides of a relatively thin metal panel. As a guide, free-layer damping works best on panels less than ¼-inch thick. For thicker machine casings or structures, the best application is constrained-layer damping, which consists of damping material bonded to the metal surface covered by an outer metal constraining layer, forming a laminated construction. Each application can provide up to 30 dB of noise reduction.
It is important to note that the noise reduction capabilities of the damping application are essentially equal, regardless of which side it is applied to on a panel or structure. Also, for practical purposes, it is not necessary to cover 100% of a panel to achieve a significant noise reduction. For example, 50% coverage of a surface area can provide a noise reduction that is roughly 3 dB less than 100% coverage. In other words, assuming that 100% coverage results in 26 dB of attenuation, 50% coverage could provide approximately 23 dB of reduction, 25% coverage could produce a 20-dB decrease, etc. For free-layer damping treatments, it is recommended that the application material be at least as thick as the panel or base layer to which it is applied. For constrained-layer damping, the damping material again should be the same thickness as the panel; however, the outer metal constraining layer may be half the thickness of the base layer.
Sound TL materials are used to block or attenuate noise propagating through a structure, such as the walls of an enclosure or room. These materials are typically heavy and dense, with poor sound transmission properties. Common applications include barriers, enclosure panels, windows, doors, and building materials for room construction.
Damping is typically used to dissipate energy associated with large, thin, vibrating panels on pieces of equipment. For low-frequency noise, significant reductions in noise levels can occur when as little as 50% of the surface area of the vibrating panels is treated with damping material. It is necessary to treat the entire panel with damping material in order to achieve similar reductions in high-frequency noise.
Keep in mind that the machine, the product being manufactured, and the process itself can all create and radiate noise. Consider the illustration in Figure 31 (conveying rocks into a hopper). In the example on the left side, the rocks impacting the metal-paneled walls of the hopper cause it to ring like a bell. As shown on the right side, reducing the free-fall height (by backing up the conveyor) such that there is only a short drop significantly reduces the potential energy, which reduces the resultant noise. Additionally, a durable rubber-like material is added to damp the hopper and minimize the ability of the metal panel to flex and vibrate, which eliminates this noise at the source. Damping material can be added to either side of the metal surface (Driscoll, Principles of Noise Control).
Damping materials are often used to reduce the response of a vibrating surface. They work by dissipating the mechanical energy of a vibrating panel in a way that does not allow the energy to re-radiate into the air as noise. The mechanical energy from a vibrating surface is typically converted into heat in the damping material, though the change in temperature is usually too small to be noticeable by touch. Large, flat surfaces that vibrate are likely to radiate more noise than smaller, stiffer surfaces. It is often not cost-effective, especially for large machines, to treat the entire machine with damping materials. Damping material attached to the center of a vibrating plate is more effective than the same amount of material attached on the sides of the same plate. This concept is displayed in Figure 32, in which a circular blade is outfitted with a sheet metal disc with a rubber buffer layer between the sheet metal and the blade.
The room shown in Figure 35 has been treated with absorption panels in the ceiling space. Note that adding this material to reduce the reverberant sound does not reduce the direct sound coming from the equipment: that sound will always exist, even if the equipment is placed outside, where little to no reflection exists. When treating a ceiling with absorptive material, a useful guideline is that the noise level will not be significantly reduced for workers at ground level when acoustical panels are installed at ceiling heights greater than 15 feet. In this situation, workers are most likely affected primarily by the direct sound wave. Vertically hung panels can create new problems, such as interference with ventilation, lighting, and sprinkler patterns. Also, for this form of treatment to provide a measurable noise reduction, the original room must be acoustically "hard." In other words, the room surfaces must be made of highly reflective materials, such as concrete or painted cinder block.
For the purpose of designing noise controls, it is useful to be able to compare the characteristics of different materials. The tendency of a material to absorb or reflect a sound is numerically represented by its absorption coefficient: the ratio of sound energy absorbed by the material to the sound energy incident to (striking) the material's surface. This coefficient is a decimal value between 0 (all sound reflected and none absorbed) and 1 (all sound absorbed). In simple terms, a material that reflects 66% of the sound energy that reaches it will absorb the remaining 34% and have an absorption coefficient of 0.34. Materials that absorb sound particularly well, such as fiberglass acoustical panels, have absorption coefficients approaching 1. An absorption coefficient reported as greater than 1 is an artifact of the test conditions.
A barrier's ability to attenuate sound that it absorbs is described by its transmission loss. Transmission loss, measured in decibels in laboratory tests, represents a sample of a barrier material's ability to prevent sound energy from propagating through the material to produce sound on the other side. A sample of material with an excellent transmission loss may reduce the sound level through a test panel of that material by up to 60 dB. Both the material and the thickness of the sample influence its transmittal loss.
Complete enclosures around noise sources are not always possible due to requirements to access maintenance panels and equipment controls, provide ventilation, or keep the process flowing. In these cases, a partial enclosure may still substantially reduce noise. Like full enclosures, partial enclosures should have effective barrier materials on the outside and should be lined with absorptive materials on the inside. Because noise will escape through the opening, the noise path should be treated with sound-absorbing materials if possible. Also, the number of openings should be limited and should be directed away from workers, if possible. Figure 39 shows a partial enclosure that allows access while affording the operator some protection from the noise source. 2b1af7f3a8